Pedals with toe clips and clipless pedal.
With clipless pedals and pedals with toe clips, the shoe is fastened on the pedal. By fastening of the shoe, the muscle strength can to used more efficiently. It can now also to pulled on the pedal. This allows to cycled more powerful. The technique of ‘pulling the pedals’ is only reserved for well trained cyclists, and professional cyclist / mountain bikers.
Another advantage of this pedal is that you can not shoot off the pedal while cycling. So there is no need extra power more to be done to keep the shoe on the pedal. The power can be thus transferred entirely on the pedal.
The clipless pedals and pedals with toe clips are mostly used in sports for professional use.
In the past, there is only one system consisted to attach the feet, the pedal with toe clips (toe hook) optionally in combination with a shoe plate with a transverse slot which fell in the pedal. The pedals with toeclip in combination with shoe plate have the following disadvantages:
- It is difficult to come into the pedal. By hand the pedal must be kept in the proper position and the toeclip be kept up.
- The strap of the toe clips should be tightened by hand.
- The ball of the foot can not twist while cycling. The position of the shoe plate is therefore very important. An incorrect adjustment of the cleat can lead to ankle, knee, and even hip injuries.
- It is not possible to retrieve the feet from the pedals before the toeclip strap with the hand is loosened. In a crash or sudden emergency this is very dangerous.
- Shoes with cleat are unsuitable to walk on.
In 1984, the French company Look applied downhill snow skiing binding or cleat technology to pedals producing the first widely used clipless pedals. (See img 4 en 5). Pedals without toe clips, where the shoes are clicking directly into the pedal are indicated by the term clipless pedals. These have the disadvantages of pedals with toeclips removed partly or completely.
It’s easy to lock the shoe. By putting the foot into the correct position on the pedal and then applying pressure clicks into place the pedal (see Figure 7). The hands can remain on the handlebars. With clipless pedals the position of the cleat is also critical. Manufacturers provide different cleats. Depending on the type of the foot, and may or may not be slack in the pedal. By mounting a cleat with slack reduces the chance of injury.
By turning the heel of the foot comes off the foot. With falls the foot will come off by itself. And during emergency brakingthe cyclist has enough time to loosen his feet. By impurities in the locking system or worn cleats may happen that the shoe weld is tricky. The clipless pedals must therefore be kept clean. Some pedals have also two positions, which can be arranged how the shoe is removed from the pedal.
Shoes bearing the SPD Shimano system (Figure 6 t / m 9) have plates that are sunk into the shoe sole. This system originates from the mountain bike world. Unlike road cycle racing, should be run regularly in the mountain biking with the bike. On shoes feature the SPD system can be easily walked.
Meanwhile the SPD system is also applied to the road bike.
Clipless pedals function superior to the traditional pedals with toeclip with special shoes. They, however, have the drawback that the system is somewhat more expensive, and can only be used in combination with special shoes.
Many recreational cyclists use pedals with or without toe clips, with or without toeclip straps in combination with conventional shoes. This solution is satisfactory for this group of cyclists as long as they place high demands on their athletic performance.
- The Look system works well because it is large and easily implemented. It clicks in very smoothly. Look pedals have the great disadvantage that the cleat is below the shoe. Walking on the shoes is unpleasant and sometimes dangerous. In addition, wear plastic cleats. Look pedals are therefore only suitable for cyclists who the inconvenience of not being able to walk in the shoes take for granted.
- The Shimano SPD system has recessed cleats. The cleats therefore wear out much slower than in the Look system. The system is suitable for cyclists, mountain bikers and road cyclists. For these target groups are also different cleats available. So are there for the racing pedals two different systems, namely SPD and SPD-R.
Within these two embodiments are, of course, also different types available, with more or less lateral movement. SPD plate with lots of lateral movement has a narrow front, the plate with a wide front has less slack.
The SPD-R is an embodiment of an SPD pedal designed for racing, the structure and shape of the pedal and the plate is different from the standard SPD pedal.
The advantage of the SPD-R pedal is that you can adjust the cleat when the shoe is still in the pedal.
All SPD plates, and SPD-R plates must be fitted with cleat rubbers. These provide more stability of the shoe on the pedal.
Correct adjustment of the cleat is essential for clipless pedals (Figure 11). In an incorrect adjustment, twisting the knee joint during pedaling, with consequently high risk of nasty injuries.
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