It’s a road bike which lack many parts, there are no brakes (because there are no unexpected obstacles on the track), no gear (because there are no ramps and no wind) and no freewheel.
The angle of the steering wheel relative to the frame is different and the width of the steering wheel are different than for the racing bicycles that are commonly used on the road, such as, for example, in the Tour de France.
The dropouts of a track bike are directed back into the swing arm, as is the case with the traditional Dutch granny bike while they are facing forward on a road racing bike. Chain tensioners are not needed because the chain is precisely tailor made for the frame.
The track bike is since its creation not changed in principle, only the materials where track bikes are made from still to be changed and improved.
There are also track tandems for two cyclists.